While many people are familiar with Baroque era paintings and illustrations of dentistry (see here and here), Gothic representations of dentistry are less well known. The Hours of Catherine of Cleves is considered one of the more famous Gothic era illustrations to survive this period. The work was complied in approximately 1440 in Utrecht, The Netherlands, by an anonymous artist and had been commissioned in honor of Catherine, Duchess of Guelders.
This illustration portrays Saint Apollonia, the patron saint of dentistry.
Apollonia was a 2nd century virgin martyr who was apparently tortured to death. During her torture, all of her teeth were pulled out and/or destroyed. This elevated her to sainthood. Because of this, she was (and still is to a degree) invoked against toothaches in hopes she will help with the pain.
She is portrayed in the Hours holding a pincer (basically, a fancy and antiquated term for tooth forceps) with a tooth in it. She has a rich attire and is gazing at the tooth. The tile pattern on which she is standing shows a dog which has no relation to her.
While this is not the only portrayal of Apollonia, it is one of the earliest, and certainly one of the more famous ones.
In the year 2016, should you have tooth pain, you may certainly invoke Apollonia, but a call to your dentist will likely be more predictable.