Archives for February 2018

Five Fast Facts on Fluoridation from the Science Moms of Fluoride Exposed

The following is a unique guest post from two accomplished scientists (and moms). I hope you enjoy it.

What is the government really up to putting fluoride in the water?  Are dentists part of a mass conspiracy?

We are two science moms, Effie Greathouse, Ph.D. freshwater ecologist, and Kylie Menagh-Johnson, MPH public health educator, and we say yes – a conspiracy to strengthen enamel and prevent caries!

Today, we’ve got five fast facts about fluoridation and oral health for you:

1) Fluoridation works together with fluoride toothpaste.

The baseline recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s oral health section, as well as other science organizations like the American Dental Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics, is to brush twice a day with fluoride toothpaste (a pea size for adults, a small pea size for kids 3-6 years old supervised by parents, a rice-grain smear for kids under three years old) and drink fluoridated water.  Brushing with fluoride toothpaste twice a day makes fluoride available to teeth for topical mechanisms of counteracting demineralization, while also counteracting gum disease via the mechanical action of brushing.  Fluoridated water delivers fluoride to saliva to counteract demineralization topically throughout the day in between brushing, and it strengthens kids’ developing teeth, too, prior to eruption.

Periodic table showing fluoride

Fluorine, the element from which fluoride comes from, is located on the periodic table next to oxygen

2) The recommended level for fluoridated water is now 0.7 parts per million (ppm).

In 2015, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) reviewed and updated the recommended level of fluoride for community water fluoridation.  Based on a review of the science by a panel scientists from environmental, agricultural, and health agencies, USPHS determined that the previous climate-based range for fluoridation (0.7– 1.2 ppm) could be changed to a single level for the whole country (0.7 ppm).  After addressing hundreds of unique public comments, the new level was published in the Federal Register and Public Health Reports and became official.

3) At both the new and the old recommended levels of fluoridation, rates of severe dental fluorosis are nearly zero.

Severe dental fluorosis – the kind that involves pitting and brown stains – is seen at very high levels of fluoridation. This rate of this adverse effect – when studied by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and a 2005 panel commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences – is nearly zero when fluoride levels are below 2 ppm.  So there’s no severe fluorosis associated with the new level of 0.7 ppm or the old level of 0.7-1.2 ppm.  Mild fluorosis does occur below 2 ppm, but it consists of white spots and markings that are often only noticeable to dental professionals and not to the general public.  Mild fluorosis will decrease with the move to the single 0.7 ppm level.

dental fluorosis caused by levels far greater than the CDC recommendations.

Severe Dental Fluorosis. The amount of fluoride needed to produce this defect is FAR greater than the levels recommended by the CDC. Photo courtesy Dr. Nicholas Calcaterra at Calcaterra Family Dentistry.

4) Fluoridated water is not just for kids.

Most of the studies of fluoridated water – especially historically – have looked at prevention of cavities in kids.  But in recent years, there’s been much interest in how fluoridated water prevents decay in adults.  A 2007 meta-analysis of 20 studies of fluoride and fluoridation effects on adult teeth points to the importance of fluoride for preventing cavities among adults, including root cavities.

5) Fluoridation of drinking water is one of 10 great public health achievements in the 20th century named by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Surgeon General Dr. Richard Carmona.

Surgeon General Dr. Richard Carmona was involved in declaring fluoridation as one of the top 10 public health achievements.

Fluoridation ushered in a new era of prevention in dentistry.  The development of all modern fluoride products – including fluoride toothpaste – built on the initial classic public health measure of fluoridation.  And the result was a dramatic decrease in cavity rates from the 1950s to the 2000s.  The other public health achievements with which fluoridation ranks include vaccines, motor vehicle safety, workplace safety, and tobacco control.  CDC judged fluoride and fluoridation to be right up there with seat belts, worker’s compensation, refrigerators, and cigarette ad bans for promoting health and wellness.

Those are five quick facts about community water fluoridation.  Our non-profit website is Fluoride Exposed. From oral health to public health, from drinking water treatment to chemistry, from geology to nutrition, and everything in between, we use real science to expose all the facts about fluoride and fluoridation.

If you’d like more fluoride facts, check out our articles and features on the Fluoride Exposed website.  We’re also up on social media at Twitter and Facebook, you can sign up for the Fluoride Exposed newsletter, and we have a custom T-shirt you can get to support the non-profit, and show off the 10 great public health achievements, including fluoridation.

Webmasters note: I am very selective on guest posting and linking to other sites. I was happy to publish this unique article and then link to Fluoride Exposed because of the scientific and non-profit nature of Effie’s and Kylie’s site.