Archives for August 2015

More on the Fabled “Epinephrine Allergy”

Ever since I posted Dental MythBuster #10 – I’m Allergic to Epinephrine back in November 2013, I have observed its growing popularity. But much to my surprise, the “epinephrine allergy” post generated a tremendous number of comments and emails which attempted to refute my assertions and/or attack me personally. In fact, one email even threatened physical harm!

photo of epinephrine where people believe they are allergic

Many believe they are allergic to this.

I had no idea that I would strike such a nerve. Apparently, there are many individuals out there who are convinced they are allergic to a substance that has been running through their bloodstream since before they left their mother’s uterus. And they will stop at nothing to attack, ridicule, or even threaten anyone who might suggest otherwise.

While I generally attempt to stay away from the more controversial dental topics out there (like public water fluoridation or amalgam fillings containing mercury), I do feel compelled to publish additional facts and data to support the fact that an epinephrine allergy does not exist!

You Could be Reacting to Sulfites or Latex

Many individuals who claim to have an epinephrine allergy learn, either through an allergist or through my blog, that their post-injection symptoms were caused by either sensitivity or allergies to two components found in most dental injections: sulfite preservatives and/or latex.

Sulfites found in local anesthetics and red wine can give you allergic reactions.

Sulfites are found in most red wine and in local anesthetics containing epinephrine.

Sulfites are used to preserve epinephrine in dental anesthetics. Sulfites can provoke severe sensitivity reactions in certain individuals. If you receive a dental injection with sulfites and you are sensitive to it, the reaction can closely resemble an allergic type response (for in depth details on sulfites and dental local anesthetics, see this post I published).

On the tip of every dental local anesthetic carpule is a tiny piece of latex. Studies have shown that the latex allergen can enter into the local anesthetic solution when that latex is pierced for an injection. But those same studies also show no reports of an allergic reaction due to the latex. (Study info: Shojaei AR, Haas DA. Local anesthetic cartridges and latex allergy: a literature review. J Can Dent Assoc. 2002;68:622-626.)

I mention all this to demonstrate that there are at least two chemicals in the injection which could potentially cause an allergic type response. But it’s not the epinephrine!

It’s Documented in Textbooks and Articles

Many readers of my first post simply attacked me personally and stated that I was wrong. Others wanted proof. Here is a screen shot from an online article:

Article proving that an allergy to epinephrine does not exist

This screen shot is from this article in the magazine Dentistry Today. It says “allergy to epinephrine cannot occur.” It can’t get any more clear cut than with that statement!

Need more proof? In the book a Handbook of Local Anesthesia by Dr. Stanley Malamed, he writes:

Allergy to epinephrine cannot occur in a living person.

This is on page 320 from the 5th edition.

Why isn’t an Epinephrine Allergy Listed on the Drug Insert or Prescribing Information?

After tobacco companies, pharmaceutical firms are probably the biggest litigation targets out there. Haven’t we all seen ads on TV looking for plaintiffs to sue drug companies? Ever hear of the website

Naturally, drug companies list all the known adverse effects on the drug sheet. If they don’t list something, and then an event occurs, the attorneys will have a field day! So if an allergy to epinephrine existed, wouldn’t it be listed on the drug sheet?

penicillin lists an allergic reaction as a  risk

Unlike epinephrine, the insert for penicillin mentions the risk of allergy.

Look at the drug inserts for these common medications: Zithromax (Z-Pak), Penicillin, Bactrim

On all of these, you will see mentions of allergic reactions. This indicates that known allergies can occur after taking the medications.

Now look at the prescribing information for all these forms of epinephrine: Epinephrine Auto Injector, Epi-Pen, Epinephrine Injection.

None of them mention an allergy to epinephrine (note that some mention a reaction to the sulfite).

So I’ll pose the question again: if an allergy to epinephrine existed, wouldn’t it be listed on the drug sheet? Why would the drug companies fail to include it knowing they could potentially be sued over its exclusion?

Note that I’ve used the terms Drug Insert and Prescribing Information quite liberally here. There are many variations depending upon who it is for (consumer vs. prescriber), but it is the FDA-required document that pharmaceutical companies must publish.

Show us a Mechanism

If you’ve made it this far, and you’ve already read my first post, you’ve hopefully learned that an allergy to epinephrine is not possible. But for those determined skeptics, I’ll make this request:

Please provide a plausible mechanism for how you can be allergic to a chemical that has been in your bloodstream since before birth and is currently being synthesized and released in your body as you read this.

Should you wish to post comments on this article, I will ask politely that you refrain from profanity and/or personal attacks. And if you read this and your heart starts to race (either because you’re angry at me or you’re excited with what you learned), that’s because of the adrenaline being released into your bloodstream… to which you are not allergic!